The aim of the next series of practical classes is to introduce you to the broad diversity of angiosperms and to provide you with training in their identification. To achieve this, you must first become familiar with the descriptive terminology used to communicate about the variation observed in plant morphology. Once you are conversant with botanical descriptive terminology, you should be able to identify any plant in the world, as long as you have a (reliable) taxonomic key. We provide you with training in how to use dichotomous keys as well as open-entry, interactive keys. Here is the link to the online key for the FLora of the Sydney Region.

As with any new language, you must be prepared to practice using botanical terminology. Therefore, throughout this component of the unit, we will provide you with opportunities to practice your newly acquired skills.

The following galleries follow the structure of your manual. At the end of this lab we want you to have a clear idea of what a leaf is and to be identify them. This is not a trivial learning outcome. HINT: look for axillary buds or evidence of axillary buds (Fig 4.1). See also Chapter 4 from Judd et al. linked in your notes and again here.

There are two parts to this prac class:

a. vegetative morphology

  • be sure know what a leaf is (how is a leaflet different?)
  • annotate your manual with notes and drawings to consolidate your understanding of terms  that describe: habit, leaf arrangement etc etc

b. reproductive morphology (link to these resources)

  • be sure your know the difference between a flower and an inflorescence.

Headings link to image galleries in google. 


This page includes a lot of images and takes a while to load. The hyperlink takes you to google gallery of the same images – images in google galleries are bigger and so structure easier to see.

4 1tree.jpg41_habit_Page_1.jpg41_habit_Page_3.jpg41_habit_Page_2.jpg

Leaf Arrangement

image gallery > leaf structure


Leaf Structure

Image gallery > leaf structure




Image gallery > stipules

Leaf Shape

Image gallery > leaf shape


Leaf Bases

Image gallery >leaf bases

Leaf base - Sagittate.jpgLeaf base -Rounded.jpgLeaf base -Cuneate.jpg

Leaf Tip

Image gallery > leaf tips


Leaf Margin

Image gallery > leaf margin

8_2Leaf margin Crenate.jpeg 8_1Leaf margin Serrate.jpg 8_3Leaf margin Dentate.jpg8_3Leaf margin Entire.jpeg


Image gallery > domatia


Image gallery > trichomes